Water Management
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Need of Water Management

Global water use has tripled in the period from 1950 to today. And water demand in coming decades is set to escalate as consequence of the population more of a water crisis than an energy crisis-and even wars for water. After all, it is essential for human life and has no substitute.
Admittedly water is a renewable resources, but its total quantity on earth is finite and fixed. And only 3% of it is fresh water, the rest is sea water of the 3% again a good deal lies locked in icecaps and glaciers or is inaccessible underground.
No wonder, President Kennedy was led to note that if humanity could find a way to get fresh water from oceans, the achievement "Would really dwarf any other scientific accomplishment."

With the way pressures are building up on available water, it mush be managed better. And there appears no effective way of doing so except managing water as an economic resources.

This approach is apt to be resented by people who have grown up with the perception that water-a liquid that falls from the sky-should be available at Zero to Low cost. To them water is a basic right, not a marketable commodity.
However, it can be easily argued that the root cause of the current crisis is the failure of suppliers and consumers to treat water as a scarce commodity with an economic value. It's indeed the under pricing of water-a major economic distortion-which has largely led to its wasteful of inefficient use.

Agriculture claims the lion's share of the water taken from rivers, lakes and wells, counting for an as estimated 65% of global water use-in 's our case almost 90% Nearly 20% of world's irrigated land lies in India.

The scope for water economics is again the greatest in agriculture. Worldwide, irrigation efficiency is estimated to average less than 40%. This means that nearly 60% of water diverted for agriculture never benefits a crop or plant.

A noted expert on rural development, estimates that management improvements alone in India could allow an additional 8 Million hectares to receive irrigation from existing canal projects, thus expanding India's irrigated area by 19%.

Amazing as it may seen, most of the world's farmers still irrigate the way their ancestors did 5,000 years ago- by flooding or channeling water by gravity across their cropland. So what holds the greatest promise is a tedical change in the technology of irrigation.

A breakthrough in the efficiency of agricultural water use has perforce to await economic pricing of public irrigation. Even underground sources which are drawn down at a rate faster than their natural recharge, have to be treated as mineral reserve; thus attracting payments and controls for individual drawls. Collectively, industries account for nearly 20% of the world's water use. Our industrial use of water is yet below 10% but it is rising rapidly. In contrast to the water used in agriculture, only a small fraction of industrial water is actually consumed. Most of it is merely needed for cooling or processing. This creates the possibility of recycling supplies withing a factory.

By far the greatest gains lie in directing water used in cities and towns for a second use in parks, gardens and farms. By using municipal water twice-once for domestic use and again for irrigation-would-be pollutants become valuable fertilizers, rivers are protected from pollutants and the reclaimed water become a reliable, local supply.
Previously there was the apprehension that poorly treated waste water used in growing vegetables could transmit disease. But with the development of modern biological and chemical treatment methods, the treated water can be rendered quite safe.

"We are not running out of water, but we are approaching the limits of inexpensive water," says Kenneth Fredrick, a noted water resources engineer. There are no conflicting claims on water. It is needed to grow crops, for industrial use, by house-holds, by fishermen and for navigation in a river. The eventual answer lies in managing water as an economic resource.

"You can live without Oil-
and you can live without love-
but you can't live without water.