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V-R-A- Kidwai- Executive-Engineer

V.R.A. Kidwai, Executive Engineer,
Central Ground Water Board, Div.IV, Chennai-90.

Introduction: Agriculture productions are being reduced/damaged due to global warming, acid rain, chemical pollution and UV rays directly attacked from Sun.   In this situation, we have to modify the agriculture system so that the agriculture production will improve and micro agriculture system is needed for mass production.

The following modifications are needed for new agriculture system.

1. The seed should be packed with sand and clay so that the water conservation will be less and withstand water particles (moisture) long time.   Moreover, it will not affect soil bearing for growing seed only 27oC or 28oC is needed.  But, earth temperature is being increased to global warming.  That’s why the seeds are ruined at growth level.
2. After seed growth, the neuropil of plant will be damaged due to UV rays from sun and acid rain and the plant should be grown in safety place where net has to be provided and sprinkler irrigation system is needed in order to dilution of acid from main.
3. Whenever acute shortage of water happens, drip irrigation can be adopted in order to avoid high temperature for seeds.
4. Sulfur and salinity of water can be rectified by RO system.
5. Soil and water testing are needed to improve agriculture production. 
6. Water harvesting by constructing percolation bond in which carbonate lime & sand should be laid at the bottom so that the acidity can be avoided.
7. An artificial recharge can be done in order to dilute acid, sulfur and fluoride.
8. The agriculture sector has completely spoiled due to chemical pollution. Cement ceiling can be done in tube well/bore well after electrical logging in order to avoid chemical pollution.
9. Radio active decay of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium in earth’s crust and mantle is a principal source of earth’s heat. Some 44 trillion watts – that continuously flows from earth interior into space.
10. Nafion: A Micro Water Filter. Membrane used to separate the Anode and Cathode compartment of Proton – exchange membrane fuel Nafion responds to water presentation about a formic acid fuel cell (ultrasonic fuel cell coating system) Nafion is a polymer that conducts ions and water through its nanostructure. A way to gauge its internal structure and manipulate. It is to enhance its use in fuel cell, organic batteries and O.S. Plant have been found.
11. Wherever hard soil/hard clay in agriculture metaphosphate can be poured in order to reduce hardness so that the water enter in a route for plant growing.  

Agriculture is faced with challenges through out the world.  There is a need to increase yields to fed a growing population.  At the same time natural resources like soil, water and bio-diversity are depleting fase in the face of climate change.

Understanding the concepts, principles and practices of evergreen agriculture could help countries achieve a sustainable, affordable agricultural growth without further threatening the natural resources.

Evergreen agriculture gives us a glimpse of the future of more environmentally sound farming where much of our annual food crop production occurs under a full canopy of trees.

Evergreen agriculture is a practice where trees are inter-cropped in annual food crop systems, sustaining a green cover on the land throughout the year.
The trees bolster nutrient supply through nitrogen fixation and nutrient cycle, an urgent need in rain-fed regions it increase production of food, fodder, fuel, fiber and income from products produced by the trees.  Evergreen agriculture is primarily based on the important principles:  minimizing soil disturbance, maintaining land/soil cover, practicing crop rotation good agronomic management practices and intercropping fertilizer and high value trees.

Fertilizer trees that capture atmospheric nitrogen and incorporate into the soil.  Glirioda seeds should be seeded between the maize plant due to which soil will be very rich and much better at retaining water.

Faidherbia is unlike virtually all other trees.  It goes dormant and sheds its leaves during the early rainy season. Its leaves re-grow when the dry season begins.   This makes it highly compatible with food crops because it does not complete with them for light, nutrients or water.  On the contrary, annual crops in the vicinity of Faidherbia trees tend to exhibit improved performance and yield.


The device bears no resemblance to mother nature’s counterparts on Oaks, Maples and other green plants, which scientists have used as model for their efforts to develop this new genre of solar cells.   About the shape of Poker card but thinner the device is fashioned from Silicon, electronics and catalysts, substance that accelerate chemical reaction s that otherwise would not occur or would run slowly, placed in a simple gallon of water in a bright sunlight, the device could produce enough electricity to supply a house/agriculture.
David Nocera Ph.D.,
                                                                                                                                                                Californian Scientist

During photosynthesis the energy in sunlight splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.  The hydrogen join with carbon di-oxide to make sugar, an essential fuel for plant growth.  In Nocera’s technology, scientists replicated that chemical process using a silicon device about the size and shape of a playing card, only thinner.  It is coated with nickel and cobalt catalysts that when exposed to water and ultraviolet light, accelerate chemical reaction.  The reaction quickly in natural water resources.

Trees are also harmed by acid rain, the forests are believed to be dying because acid rain is harming them.   Scientists say that acid rain damages the waxy outer coating that protects the leaves.  When this happens it allows the acid to seep into this tree.   Instead of water charging from a liquid to a gas inside the leaves, gas is taking the place of water.   Thus prevents the plant from taking in carbon dioxide to perform photosynthesis, as the plant will eventually die.

Acid rain, acid fog and acid vapor also damage forests by damaging the surface of the leaves as  needles.  This makes it harder for the trees.   This makes it harder for the trees to withstand the cold and will cause the trees to die.   Acid rain also harms the soil that the trees are growing in by taking most of the valuable nutrients away from the soil.   Acid rain also leaves lot of aluminum in the soil, which can be harmful to the trees that grow there.

The atmosphere deposits a lot of toxic metals into the forests because acid rain containing metals.  Some of the metals are lead, zinc, copper, chromium and aluminum.  When there is acid rain the rain the release these metals.  This is believed to stunt the growth of many trees as plants.   This is also stunts the growth of more algae nitrogen-fixing bacteria and fungi that are needed to help the forest grow.   Forests need these because they eat the harmful things that will kill the trees, such as bad bacteria.  Acid rain hurts trees because they cannot grow any more.

In view of the law governing water movement, transformation, circulation and the role of water in arid ecosystem and in sustainable agriculture, there have been many harmful effects on the agricultural environment from poor water management.


Courtesy “The Hindu”  (Daily News Paper)


In the arid regions, the decisive factor in the ecosystem is water, which will directly affect the environment by the changes in its quantity, quality and regional distribution.  The reclamation and utilization of the water resources in the arid area regional played a key role in the development of society and economy.  Certainly, the impact of human activities on water management has improved the environment to be favourable for agricultural development on a large scale, especially thanks to the construction of reservoirs and of irrigation and drainage systems.   Several dreams have come true, such as expanding the agricultural areas of the old oasis, exploiting the water low and increasing the artificial woodland and rangeland.  These changes have brought about a great advance in agricultural production.  But the management of water resources is still the most important task for sustainable development in the arid regions not only because the promotion of economic prosperity is limited by water scarcity but also because of water management is involved in exploiting other natural resources  and protecting environment .


Remedies:  First of all, we have to find out the chemical affected area by electrical logging.   Then affected area can be sealed by cement sealing and clay packing after erection of pipe assembly.   If required carbonate and limestone can be mixed along with gravel while shrouding in between annular area of well in order to reduce acid in water.


Water is one of the most challenging current and future natural resources issues in the arid regions.   For sustainable agricultural development and hence economic growth and society progress, water is key to success.  The existing water resources are already under great pressure from agriculture and will face a much more difficult situation in the future.

However, some typical examples have proved that agricultural development could be sustained if water management was improved.   But, how to conduct sound water management is still the most important question for sustainable development when we face agriculture that is limited by water.

Due to global warming and over exploitation, water levels are being depleted.  In future sufficient water will not be available for drinking water and agriculture development.  To overcome the situation, small rivers should no limits due to which the adjoined low ground water level increased.

The ozone layers have already damaged and further could not be repaired.  But the green gas house can be controlled by adopting green revolution.

The automobile fuel is main reason for pollution that can be avoided by battery car, use bio diesel instead of petrol or diesel.


A new study shows that as climate change enhances free growth in tropical forests, the resulting increase in litter fall could stimulate soil micro-organisms leading to a release of soil carbon.

In a process called photosynthesis plants use this solar    and CO2 for biosynthesis releases oxygen. 
What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is a process by which plants some bacteria and some protestants use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar which cellular respiration converts into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) the “fuel” used by all living things.  The conversion of unusable sunlight energy into usable chemical energy is associated with the actions of green pigment chlorophyll.   Most of the time, the photosynthetic process uses water and releases the oxygen that we absolutely must have to stay alive.  Oh yes, we need food as well.

We can write the overall reaction of this process as
6H2O + 6 CO2 ………… Co H12 O6 + 6O2
Six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon di-oxide produces one molecules of sugar plus six molecules of oxygen.
Plants are only photosynthetic organisms to have leaves (and not all plants have leaves).  A leaf may be viewed as solar collector crammed full of photosynthesis cell.
The raw materials of photosynthesis, water and carbon-di-oxide, enter the cells of this leaf and the products of photosynthesis, sugar and oxygen, leaves the leaf.
The balance between the plant carbon di-oxide removal and animal carbon di-oxide generation is equalized also by the formation of carbonate in the oceans.  This removes excess carbon di-oxide from the air and water )both of which are in equilibrium with regard to carbon di-oxide).
Fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal, as well as more recent fuels such as peat and wood generate carbon di-oxide when burned.   Fossil fuels are formed ultimately by organic process and represent a tremendous carbon sink.   Human activity has greatly increased the concentration of carbon di-oxide in air.   This increase has led to global warming an increase in temperature around the world, the green house effect.  The increase in carbon di-oxide and other pollutants in the air has also led to “acid rain” where water falls through polluted air and chemically combine with carbon di-oxide, nitrous oxide and sulfur acid producing rain fall with PH as low as 4.  This results in fish kills or changes in soil Ph, which can alter the natural vegetation and use s of the land. 

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