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CONSTRUCTION OF HIGH DISCHARGE ARTESIAN WELL IN DROUGHT AREA KARAIKURICHI EXPORATION WELL, ARIYALUR DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU

vra_kidwai

Introduction: 

An artesian aquifer is a confined aquifer containing ground water, called an artesian well, without the need for pumping.  Water may even reach the ground water surface of the natural pressure is high enough in which case the well is called a flowing artesian well.  In other words, “An artesian well which occurs in different hydrostatic pressure is free flowing water without pumping”.

An aquifer is a layer of soft rock, like limestone that absorbs water from an inlet path.  Porous stone is confined between impermeable rocks or clay.   This keeps the pressure high, so when the water finds an outlet, it overcomes gravity and goes up instead at a higher elevation than the head of well. 

Fossil water aquifers can also be artesian if they are under sufficient pressure from the surrounding rocks.   This is similar to how many newly tapper oil wells are pressurized.  The head of pressure on Artesian well will be considered with “POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE”.

Deep wells drilled in to rock to intersect the water table and reaching far below it are often called artesian wells in ordinary conversation, but this is not necessarily a correct use of the term.  Such deep wells may be just like ordinary, shallower wells; great depth alone does not automatically make them artesian wells.  The word artesian, properly used, refers to situations where the water is confined under pressure below layers of relatively impermeable rock.  The picture shows an artesian well with the potentiometric surface being just above the land surface, but, as the another picture shows, artesian pressure can be very strong.

Normally this kind of wells consist of lithology like soil, rock, sandstone again rock of which sandstone having high water bearings.

Sensitive area of drilling:

In sandstone/fine sand area having heavy mud loss is possible where mud density should be increased so that silting of sand can be avoided.  Suppose there is heavy mud loss, local clay and saw dust can be used in order to avoid silting of sand.  If the formation is quicksand the string of tools should be tripped out in order to avoid fishing.
Origin:
pipe

Ajrtesian wells were named after the former province of Artois in France, where many Artesian wells were drilled by Carthusian monks from 1126.

Adj. 1. Artesian – (of water) rising to the surface under internal hydrostatic pressure, “an artesian well”, “artesian pressure”.

Subartesian – (of water) rising naturally in a well to a height appreciably above that of the surrounding water table but not flowing out of the well.

KARAIKURICHI EXPLORATION WELL (ARTESIAN WELL)

CASE STUDY: 

1.       Name of Block                             :         Karaikurichi EW, Ariyalur

2.       Deployment of Rig                      :         DR/FL-80/62 (NGRI)

3.       Innovation work  &                    :         Dr. Thambi,
          Overall control by                                 Regional Director,
          Central Ground Water Board,
          South Eastern Coastal Region,
          Chennai-600 090.

4.       Execution of Work by                 :        Mr. V.R.A. Kidwai,
                                                                     Executive Engineer,
                                                                     Central Ground Water Board,
                                                                     Division IV,
                                                                     Chennai-600 090.

 

5.       Constructed by                          :         Mr. P. Samraj,
                                                                       Driller-in-charge

6.       Site Geologist                            :         Mr. Benjamin,
                                                                      Scientist “B”

7.       Date of commencement             :         10.08.2010

8.       Date of completion                     :         12.09.2010

9.       Estimated depth                        :         400 metres  

10.     Well completion depth               :         395 metres

11.     Lithology                                    :         Clay, Coarse Sand, Fine sand &
          Sandstone

 
karaikurichi  

SUMMARISED LITHOLOGICAL LOG OF KARAIKURICHI PILOT HOLE DRILLED BY DR/FL-80/62 (NGRI) DRILLING UNIT

LITHO- LOGY

DEPTH RANGE

TOTAL THICKNESS

DECISION OF THE LITHO UNIT

FROM

TO

Top Soil

0.00

4.00

4.00

Top soil, yellow color with Kankar.

Sandy Soil

4.00

10.25

6.25

Loose sand with clay.

Sand

10.25

25.75

15.50

Fine grained sand, pale yellow colored with clay.

Sand

25.75

35.25

9.50

Fine grained sand with pebble size quartz materials

Sand

35.25

41.50

6.25

Fine grained sand with yellow colored clay.

Sand

41.50

57.00

15.50

Medium grained sand white colored, rounded sand.

Sand

57.00

72.25

15.25

Fine to medium grained sand yellow colored.

Sand

72.25

82.00

9.75

Coarse grained sand, pink colored, well sorted.

Sand

82.00

101.00

19.00

Very fine grained sand with clay, grey colored.

Sand

101.00

107.00

6.00

Very coarse grained sand (Pebble size) well tested.

Sand

107.00

129.00

22.00

Fine grained sand white colored

Shale

129.00

141.50

12.50

Staty nature fine grained, dark colored rock.

Sand

141.50

150.75

9.25

Coarse grained sand, grey colored, well sorted.

Shale

150.75

157.00

6.25

Staty nature fine grained dark colored.

Shale

157.00

213.25

56.25

Staty nature, fine grained dark colored

Clay

213.25

229.00

15.75

Fine grained sand mixed with clay white colored.

Clay

229.00

266.50

37.50

Clay, grey colored with less amount of sand medium grained.

Sand

266.50

298.00

31.50

Coarse grained sand, grey colored

Sand

298.00

313.00

15.00

Fine to medium grained sand with sticky clay.

Sand

313.00

326.00

13.00

Fine grained sand grey color.

Sand

326.00

341.50

15.50

Medium-coardse grained sand grey colored.

Sand

341.50

360.00

18.50

Fine grained sand with sticky clay.

Sand

360.00

400.00

40.00

Coarse grained sand (Quartz) grey colored well sorted

 

DRILLING HISTORY

 

REMARKS/BIT USED

DATE

DEPTH DRILLED

FROM

TO

10.08.2010

0.00

14.25

Depth  00.00 - 10.25   9 7/8" - RR Bit

Depth 10.25 - 400.00 8 3/4" - RR Bit.

 

14.25

29.00

 

29.00

125.75

 

125.75

163.25

 

163.25

204.00

 

204.00

229.00

 

229.00

313.25

 

313.25

400.00

REPORT ON THE LOGGING OF THE BOREHOLE DRILLED AT KARAIKURICHI (JAYAKONDAM)

Site                                                                   :           Karaikurichi (Jayamkondam)
Date                                                                 :           19.08.2010.
Depth Drilled                                                    :           400 metres.
Depth Logging                                                 :           400 metres (Only down log)

 

Granular Zones demarcated

15.0             -        115.0
125.0           -        135.0
205.0           -        255.0
260.0           -        280.0
300.0           -        315.0
318.0           -        343.0
370.0           -        395.0

After geophysical sounding test, the rig DR/FL-80/62 (NGRI) was deployed in Karaikurichi EW and pilot-hole drilling commenced and completed at 400 metres estimated depth.  While drilling, slight mud loss was there for which mud density was increased as required. As soon as drilling completed, electrical logging was conducted as a result given, well assembly was prepared and resumed reaming and completed at 400 metres.

While drilling it was noticed that slight mud loss was there for which M. Density was increased as per time long, the rate of penetration have been increased in sand stone/fine sand area and time of drilling progress is less.

As soon as reaming completed, the assembly were lowered upto 395 mtrs  in which six zones are available and gravel shrouded uniformly by backwash.

The aquifer 1 – 5 available at top are ordinary zone.  The last aquifer having “free flow zone” where water pressure increased automatically.  While developing 1 - 5 zones the water pressure was less.  While developing 6th zone, the water pressure increased from 20 – 24 lps.  The water was coming through 6”Ǿ valve with continuous flow of 20 lps without pumping.

Karaikurichi Free Flow Well Karaikurichi Free k
 


Conclusion:

1. As per chemical report, the water can be utilized for drinking as well as agriculture purposes.

2. 125 acres are to be benefited for cultivation and “green resolution” will be coming up by putting
     more crops in this area.

3. Reservoir/percolation bond can be constructed in order to store the water.

4. To improve the efficiency of well, horizontal or “V” wire wound screen can be utilized in which
    the entrance velocity is more, as a result the discharge of water will also be more and due to
    laminar flow friction loss can be avoided. The heads of pressure and discharge will increase
    due to laminar flow.

5. There is a possibility of caving at top as such more foundation pipes should be laid at the bottom
    of rig.

6. This is the first free flow i.e. Artesian well constructed in Tamil Nadu with a high discharge.

7. By construction of free flow wells, the drought area of Karaikurichi is becoming green revolution
    area.It is a phenomenon.

8. The Karaikurichi EW is continuously discharging 20 LPS (free flow) having light sulpher content
    which is being evaporated while coming out to atmosphere.

9. As far as the tube well construction is concerned, Central Ground Water Board is constructing wells
    of excellent quality and quantity than the private drilling organizations.
“GREEN REVOLUTION REDUCES THE POLLUTION”
 
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